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11. To ypoloipo 1%

Mallon perissotero apo 1%...

11.1 H xrhsh twn tar kai gzip

Sto UNIX yparxoyn kapoies eyrews xrhsimopoioumenes efarmoges gia thn dhmioyrgia paketwn (archives) kai th sympiesh arxeiwn. To tar xrhsimopoieitai gia thn kataskeyh paketwn - opws to PKZIP h to Winzipme th diafora oti den sympiezei, apla «paketarei». Gia na ftiajete ena neo paketo:

$ tar -cvf <onoma_arxeiou.tar> <file> [file...]

Gia na ejagete (extract) arxeia apo ena paketo:

$ tar -xpvf <onoma_arxeiou.tar> [file...]

Gia na deite ta periexomena enos paketoy:

$ tar -tf <onoma_arxeiou.tar> | less

Mporeite na sympiesete me to compress, to opoion einai pleon aphrxaiwmeno kai kalon einai na mh xrhsimopoieitai pleon, kai me to gzip:

$ compress <arxeio>
$ gzip <arxeio>

Etsi dhmioyrgeitai ena sympiesmeno arxeio me katalhjh .Z (apo to compress) h .gz (apo to gzip). Ayta ta programmata mporoun na sympiesoyn mono ena arxeio ka8e fora. Gia thn aposympiesh:

$ compress -d <arxeio.Z>
$ gzip -d <arxeio.gz>

RMP.

Yparxoyn epishs ta programmata unarj, zip kai unzip (symbata me to PK??ZIP) . Arxeia me katalhjh .tar.gz h .tgz (paketarismena me tar, en synexeia sympiesmena me gzip) einai toso syxna sto UNIX oso kai ta arxeia .ZIP sto DOS. Gia na deite ta periexomena enos arxeioy .tar.gz:

$ tar -ztf <arxeio.tar.gz> | less

11.2 Egkatastash efarmogwn

Kat' arxas na dieykrinisoyme kati: h egkatastash efarmogwn einai ypo8esh toy root. Oi perissoteres efarmoges toy Linux dianemontai ws paketa .tar.gz, poy kata kanona periexoyn enan katalogo me katallhlo onoma periexonta arxeia kai/h ypokatalogoys. Enas kalos kanonas einai na egka8istate ayta ta paketa apo to /usr/local me thn entolh

# tar -zxf <archive.tar.gz>

kai en synexeia diabazontas to arxeio README h INSTALL. Stis perissoteres periptwseis, h efarmogh dianemetai ws phgaios kwdikas, ton opoio 8a prepei na metaglwttisete· synh8ws, arkei na plhktrologhsete make kai meta make install. An to paketo (archive) periexei to senario configure, trejte to prohgoymenws. Profanws, 8a xreiasteite to metaglwttisth gcc h g++.

Alla paketa prepei na «anoix8oun» (unpack) ston katalogo /· etsi symbainei me ta paketa .tgz toy Slackware. Alla paketa periexoyn ta arxeia, alla oxi mesa se ypokatalogo, opote prepei na prosexete gia na mhn mplexteite. Pantote na blepete ta periexomena enos paketoy prin to egkatasthsete.

To Debian kai to Red Hat exoyn tis dikes toys morfes paketwn, ta .deb kai .rpm antistoixws. To teleytaio malista xairei eyreias apodoxhs. Gia na egkatasthsete ena paketo rpm plhktrologeiste

# rpm -i package.rpm

11.3 Xrhsimes symboyles

Kulish pros ta pisw: patwntas <SHIFT + PAG UP> (to gkrizo plhktro) mporeite na kylate pros ta pisw (backscroll) merikes selides, analogws posh mnhmh video exete dia8esimh.

Ka8arismos ths o8onhs: an xrhsimopoihsete tis more h cat se ena dyadiko arxeio (binary file), h o8onh sas pi8anws na gemisei me skoypidia. Gia na to dior8wsete plhktrologeiste (xwris na blepete) (blind type) reset h thn parakatw seira xarakthrwn: echo CTRL-V ESC c RETURN.

Epikollhsh keimenoy: gia thn konsola, deite katw8i· otan eiste sto X, pathste me to pontiki (click) kai meta surte gia na epilejete keimeno se ena para8yro xterm kai sth synexeia pathste to mesaio plhktro toy pontikiou (h kai ta duo taytoxronws an exete pontiki duo plhktrwn) gia na epikollhsete. Yparxei akomh kai to xclipboard (dystyxws mono gia keimeno), omws mh mperdeyteite apo thn argh toy apodosh.

Xrhsh toy pontikiou: an exete egkatasthsei ton gpm, enan odhgo pontikiou gia thn konsola, mporeite na pathsete kai na surete (click and drag) gia na epilejete keimeno kai meta deji klik gia na epikollhsete to epilegen keimeno. Leitoyrgei anamesa stis phgaies konsoles (VC).

Mhnumata toy pyrhna: rijte mia matia sto /var/adm/messages h /var/log/messages ws root gia na deite ti exei na sas pei o pyrhnas, symperilambanomenwn twn mhnymatwn ekkinhsews. Isws breite praktikh thn entolh dmesg.

11.4 Pou 8a breite efarmoges

An anarwtieste pou 8a breite efarmoges gia to Linux sas gia na antikatasthsete aytes poy xrhsimopoiousate sto DOS/Win sas proteinw toys basikous topoys logismikou gia Linux: ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux, ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux, kai ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/Linux. Alloi kaloi topoi gia arxh einai o «`Linux Applications and Utilities Page» http://www.xnet.com/~blatura/linapps.shtml, kai h «epishmh» istoselida toy Linux http://www.linux.org.

11.5 Kapoia pragmata poy de mporousate na kanete

To Linux mporei na kanei polla pragmata poy gia ta DOS/Windows htan fortika, duskola h akomh adunata. Idou kapoies eykolies poy mporeite na geyteite:

11.6 Ejaskhsh toy UNIX ypo DOS/Windows

Einai apisteyto, alla yparxoyn ejaireta ergaleia poy prosferoyn ena UNIX-oeides periballon sto DOS/Windows! Ena apo ayta einai h soyita Djgpp ( http://www.delorie.com/djgpp) gia DOS, enw to to Cygnus ( http://www.cygnus.com) einai mia polyplokoterh metafora sto Win32. Amfotera periexoyn ta idia ergaleia anaptyjhs GNU me to Linux· par' ola ayta de 8a exete thn idia sta8erothta kai apodosh...

An 8elete na parete mia geush apo to Linux, dokimaste to Djgpp. Katebaste kai egkatast eiste ta parakatw arxeia (th stigmh poy grafw ayto, h teleytaia ekdosh einai h 2.02): djdev202.zip, bnu281b.zip, bsh1147b.zip, fil316b.zip, find41b.zip, grep22b.zip, gwk303b.zip, lss332b.zip, shl112b.zip.. Parexontai odhgies egkatastashs kai peraiterw boh8eia mporeite na breite ston topo news:comp.os.msdos.djgpp.

Eidikotera, h xrhsh toy bash sto DOSWin einai megalh anakoufish. Gia na to ry8misete katallhlws, dior8wste to parexomeno arxeio BOOT.BAT wste na apeikonizei thn egkatastash sas, kai sth synexeia topo8eteiste ayta ta arxeia ston oikeio katalogo sas (sth diamerish twn Windows ) anti aytwn poy parexontai:

# this is _bashrc

LS_OPTIONS="-F -s --color=yes"
alias cp='cp -i'
alias d='ls -l'
alias l=less
alias ls="ls $LS_OPTIONS"
alias mv='mv -i'
alias rm='rm -i'
alias u='cd ..'

# this is _bprof
if [ -f ~/_bashrc ]; then
  . ~/_bashrc
fi
PS1='\w\$ '
PS2='> '
CDPATH="$CDPATH:~"
# stuff for less(1)
LESS="-M-Q"                     # makrys dromeas, siwphlos
LESSEDIT="%E ?lt+%lt. %f"       # dior8wsh prwths grammhs
VISUAL="jed"                    # syntakths
LESSCHARSET=latin1              # kalyterh orash tonismenwn grammatwn
export PS1 PS2 CDPATH LS_OPTIONS LESS LESSEDIT LESSOPEN VISUAL LESSCHARSET

11.7 Synh8eis epektaseis kai sxetizomena programmata

8a synanthsete diafores epektaseis arxeiwn. Ejairwntas tis pio spanies (p.x. grammatoseires klp), aytes einai:

11.8 Metatroph Arxeiwn

An xreiazeste na metaferete arxeia anamesa sto DOS/Win kai to Linux, exete yp' och to problhma «teloys grammhs» («end of line» problem). Sto DOS, ka8e grammh keimenoy teleiwnei me CR/LF (dhladh ASCII 13 + ASCII 10), enw sto Linux me LF. An dior8wsete ena arxeio toy DOS mesa apo to Linux, pi8anotata ka8e grammh 8a teleiwnei me ena periergo «M»· ena arxeio keimenoy toy Linux sto DOS 8a fainetai san ws mia aplh xiliometrikh grammh xwris paragrafoys. Gia th swsth metatroph twn arxeiwn yparxoyn kapoia ergaleia, ta dos2unix kai unix2dos.

An exete arxeia mono keimenoy poy periexoyn tonismenoys xarakthres, sigoyreyteite oti exoyn ginei mesa apo ta Windows (me Notepad) kai oxi se aplo DOS· diaforetika, oloi oi tonismenoi xarakthres 8a mperdeytoun.

H metatroph arxeiwn Word h WordPerfect se aplo keimeno einai dynath, an kai kapws epikindynh. 8a xreiasteite kapoio apo ta ergaleia poy yparxoyn stoys topoys toy CTAN· enas einai o ftp://ftp.tex.ac.uk. Katebaste to programma word2x apo ton katalogo /pub/tex/tools/, h dokimaste kapoio apo ta programmata toy katalogoy /pub/tex/support/. Eidikotera, to word2x metatrepei arxeia Word 6, enw gia arxeia toy Word 97 8a xreias8eite to mswordview ( http://www.csn.ul.ie/~caolan/docs/MSWordView.html) poy ta trepei se HTML.

11.9 Eleu8eres Soyites grafeioy

An h metatroph arxeiwn den einai arketh, exete th dynatothta na by8istei-te se ena (eleu8ero! paketo, paromoio toy Microsoft Office.

H soyita StarOffice einai eleu8erh gia idiwtikh xrhsh. Einai megalh, kapws argh, alla par' ol' ayta polu kalh: prosferei dynatothtes poy den yparxoyn sto Microsoft Office. Akomh, mporei na diabasei kai na gracei arxeia twn Word kai Excel files, an kai h metatroph den einai pantote teleia. Istoselida: http://www.stardivision.com. (S.t.M.: h selida exei pleon allajei, meta thn ejagora ths StarDivision apo thn Sun, kai pleon einai http://www.sun.com/staroffice)

Allo kalo paketo einai to Corel WordPerfect, mia eleu8erh ekdosh toy opoioy parexetai sto Diadiktyo. Na pw ki alla; Tsimphste to! http://www.corel.com.


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