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4. Egkatastash

Gia na ry8misete to Linux wste na yposthrizei hxo akoloy8eite ta parakatw bhmata:

  1. Egkatasthste thn karta hxoy.
  2. Ry8miste kai xtiste ton pyrhna wste na yposthrizei hxo.
  3. Dhmioyrghste ta device files.
  4. Epanekkinhsh toy pyrhna Linux kai elegxos ths egkatastashs.

Sta epomena tmhmata 8a paroysiasoyme ka8e ena apo ayta ta bhmata analytika.

4.1 Egkatastash ths Kartas Hxoy

Akoloy8hste tis odhgies toy kataskeyasth gia thn egkatastash toy hardware h zhthste apo ton antiproswpo poy agorasate th syskeyh na sas thn egkatasthsei.

Oi palioteres kartes hxoy exoyn synh8ws diakoptes h jumpers gia to IRQ, kanali DMA, klp. Katagracte tis times poy xrhsimopoihsate. An den eisaste sigoyroi, xrhsimopoihste tis proka8orismenes, apo to ergostasio, times. Prospa8hste na apofugete ta conflicts me alles syskeyes (p.x. kartes diktuoy ethernet , kartes SCSI, parallhles kai seiriakes 8ures) oso einai dynato.

Synh8ws 8a prepei na xrhsimopoihsete tis idies ry8miseis gia I/O port, IRQ, kai DMA, poy xrhsimopoieite sto DOS. Se merikes periptwseis, parola ayta, (eidika gia tis PnP kartes) isws xreiastei na xrhsimopoihsete diaforetikes ry8miseis gia na kanete ta pragmata na doylecoyn katw apo Linux.

4.2 Ry8mizontas ton Pyrhna

Me ka8e nea egkatastash Linux exete synh8ws ena precompiled pyrhna. Aytoi oi pyrhnes den yposthrizoyn hxo. Einai protimotero na kanete compile ton pyrhna monoi sas jana me toys drivers poy 8elete. Mporei na 8elete na kanete compile jana ton pyrhna gia na anaba8misteite se mia nea ekdosh h na eley8erwsete poroys mnhmhs mikrainontas to mege8os toy pyrhna.

8a prepei na symboyleyteite to Linux Kernel HOWTO gia tis leptomereies toy xtisimatos enos pyrhna. 8a anaferw apla merika 8emata poy aptontai mono stis kartes hxoy.

An den exete ry8misei pote ton pyrhna wste na yposthrizei hxo, einai kalh idea na diabasete ola ta arxeia Readme poy symperilambanontai me toys drivers hxoy toy pyrhna, eidika tis plhrofories sxetika me ton tupo ths kartas sas. Ta parakatw arxeia tekmhriwshs briskontai sto kernel sound driver directory, synh8ws sto /usr/src/linux/drivers/sound:

CHANGELOG         - perigrafh twn allagwn ka8e ekdoshs
COPYING           - copying kai copyright restrictions
Readme            - ta pio prosfata kai shmantika nea
Readme.aedsp16    - plhrofories sxetika me thn karta hxoy Audio Excel DSP 16 
Readme.cards      - parathrhseis gia th ru8mish sygkekrimenwn kartwn
Readme.linux      - parathrhseis gia thn egkatastash drivers hxoy diaforetikwn ekdosewn
Readme.modules    - pws na kanete build ena driver sa loadable kernel module
Readme.v30        - nea xarakthristika sthn ekdosh 3.0 toy driver hxoy
experimental.txt  - parathrhseis se peiramatika xarakthristika

Akoloy8hste thn typikh diadikasia gia to xtisimo toy pyrhna. Yparxoyn ws twra 3 diaforetika interfaces gia th diadikasia ru8mishs. Grafontas "make xconfig", exete ena grafiko user interface poy trexei sta X11. Me thn entolh "make menuconfig" jekinate ena menu-based system poy xrhsimopoiei mono apeikonish menu kai keimenoy. H klasikh me8odos, xrhsimopoiwntas to "make config", prosferei ena aplo interface mono me keimeno.

8a prepei na prosejete idiaitera otan xrhsimopoieite to "make xconfig" h to "make menuconfig". Oles oi NAI/OXI erwthseis prepei na ejetastoun prosektika. H proepilegmenh apanthsh poy exoyn oi entoles einai panta OXI, to opoio den einai to katallhlo gia oles tis periptwseis. Sygkekrimena h epilogh "/dev/dsp kai /dev/audio support" (CONFIG_AUDIO) prepei na einai synh8ws NAI.

Ypo8etoyme oti xrhsimopoieite thn klassikh diadikasia gia na kanete compile, grafontas "make config", an kai h diadikasia einai paromoia gia ka8e periptwsh.

Yparxoyn epishs duo diaforetikoi tropoi gia na ry8misete ton hxo. O prwtos einai o "palios" tropos (o monos poy yphrxe prin toys pyrhnes 2.0.0). Xrhsimopoiei ena standalone programma to opoio einai meros toy driver hxoy. Ayth h me8odos doyleuei me tis perissoteres kartes hxoy ektos apo elaxistes poy apaitoun epipleon drivers "xamhlou epipedoy" (miroSOUND, AWE32, kai AEDSP16 cards).

O deuteros einai h "nea" kai kaluterh me8odos h opoia einai enswmatwmenh me to configuration meso menou poy xrhsimopoieitai kai gia ton ypoloipo pyrhna. Aytos o tropos de doyleuei me kartes hxoy poy zhtoun arxeio firmware. Ayto perilambanei tis kartes PSS, SM Wave, AudioTrix Pro kai TurtleBeach Tropez/Maui. Me aytes tis kartes prepei na xrhsimopoih8ei h palia me8odos.

H nea me8odos xrhsimopoieitai panta apo to "make xconfig". Otan xrhsimopoieite to "make menuconfig" mporeite na epilejete metaju toy "paliou" kai "neoy" tropoy sthn ypoo8onh gia hxo. Otan trexete "make config" xrhsimopoieitai aytomata h "palia" me8odos. Parola ayta, an exete xrhsimopoihsei th "nea" me8odo mia fora, 8a xrhsimopoih8ei kai apo to "make config" epishs. Mporeite na gyrisete ston palio tropo trexontas to "make menuconfig" kai epilegontas ton "palio" tropo.

O tropos poy proteinoyme einai h xrhsh toy "make menuconfig" mazi me thn "palia" me8odo ru8mishs hxoy. Polla problhmata egkatastashs ofeilontai (toylaxiston se kapoio pososto) se lan8asmenh xrhsh toy neoy tropoy.

Einai epishs dynato na fortwsete to driver hxoy san loadable module toy pyrhna. Synistw arxika na xtisete to driver ston pyrhna. Afou elegjete oti doyleuei, mporeite na peiramatisteite xrhsimopoiwntas thn epilogh kernel module.

Otan trexete make config, energopoihste thn yposthrijh hxoy apantwntas nai "y" sthn erwthsh

Sound card support (CONFIG_SOUND) [M/n/y/?]

Sto telos twn erwthsewn gia th ru8mish toy pyrhna, 8a ginei compile ena programma ru8mishs hxoy, 8a trejei, kai 8a sas rwthsei tis parametroys poy xreiazontai gia thn karta sas. Prosoxh stis apanthseis sas mia kai an apanthsete mia erwthsh la8os mporei na sas empodisei na apanthsete se merikes erwthseis poy akoloy8oun. Gia paradeigma, mhn apanthsete nai "yes" sthn prwth erwthsh (PAS16) an den exete PAS16. Mhn energopoieite perissoteres kartes hxoy apo oses xreiazeste, mia kai spataloun mnhmh. Epishs merikoi drivers (opws o MPU-401) mporei na kanoyn conflict me ton elegkth SCSI kai na empodizoyn ton pyrhna na kanei boot.

Parakatw paroysiazw mia suntomh perigrafh ka8e epiloghs. Se ka8e erwthsh mporeite na apanthsete "y" (nai) h "n" (oxi). H proka8orismenh apanthsh "[Y/n/?]" shmainei "y" kai h "[N/y/?]" shmainei pws h proka8orismenh apanthsh einai "n". Gia na dialejete thn proka8orismenh timh, apla pathste Enter, alla 8ymh8eite oti h proka8orismenh timh den einai aparaithta kai h swsth.

An gracete ena erwthmatiko ("?") 8a diabasete mia suntomh perigrafh gia th sygkekrimenh epilogh.

Shmeiwste epishs oti mporei na mhn erwth8eite oles tis erwthseis. To programma mporei na akyrwsei merikes erwthseis oi opoies ejartwntai apo nwriterh apanthsh sas. Mporei epishs na dialejei merikes epiloges gia sas, aytomata.

Old configuration exists in /etc/soundconf. Use it [Y/n/?]

An exete kanei compile prohgoymenws ton pyrhna me yposthrijh hxoy, tote h prohgoumenh sas ru8mish mporei na sw8ei. An 8elete na xrhsimopoihsete thn prohgoumenh egkatastash, pathste nai "y". An 8elete nea ru8mish h exete anaba8mistei se neo pyrhna, 8a prepei na apanthsete oxi "n" kai na synexisete th diadikasia egkatastashs.

ProAudioSpectrum 16 support [Y/n/?]

Apanthste nai "y" mono an exete a Pro Audio Spectrum 16, ProAudio Studio 16 or Logitech SoundMan 16. Mhn apantate 'y' an exete kapoia allh karta kataskeyasmenh apo thn Media Vision h thn Logitech mia poy den einai symbates me PAS16.

SoundBlaster support [Y/n/?]

Apanthste nai "y" an exete mia gnhsia karta SoundBlaster ths Creative Labs h mia symbath 100% (opws h Thunderboard h h SM Games). An h karta sas einai sthn lista twn yposthrizomenwn kartwn koitajte tis odhgies gia aythn sto arxeio Readme.cards prin apanthsete se ayth thn erwthsh. Gia mia agnwsth karta mporeite na apanthsete "y'" an h karta isxyrizetai pws einai symbath me SoundBlaster.

Gravis Ultrasound support [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" an exete GUS h GUS MAX. Apanthste "n" an den exete GUS mia poy o driver katanalwnei polu mnhmh.

MPU-401 support (NOT for SB16) [Y/n/?]

Prosoxh se aythn thn erwthsh. To MPU-401 interface yposthrizetai apo oles sxedon tis kartes hxoy. Parola ayta, kapoies kartes poy yposthrizontai eggenws (natively)exoyn toys dikous toys drivers gia to MPU-401. H energopoihsh thn epilogh MPU-401 se aytes tis kartes 8a dhmioyrghsei conflict. Epishs, h energopoihsh toy MPU-401 se ena susthma poy den exei pragmatika MPU-401 8a mporouse na dhmioyrghsei kapoia problhmata. An h karta sas den einai sth lista twn yposthrizomenwn kartwn, koitajte tis odhgies gia thn sygkekrimenh karta sto arxeio Readme.cards. Einai asfales na apanthsete "y" an exete mia karta me alh8ino MPU-401 MIDI interface.

6850 UART Midi support [Y/n/?]

Einai asfales na apanthsete "n" se aythn thn erwthsh, se ka8e periptwsh. To 6850 UART interface spania xrhsimopoieitai.

PSS (ECHO-ADI2111) support [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" mono an exete Orchid SW32, Cardinal DSP16 h kapoia allh karta poy basizetai sto PSS chipset (AD1848 codec + ADSP-2115 DSP chip + Echo ESC614 ASIC CHIP).

16 bit sampling option of GUS (not GUS MAX) [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" an exete egkatesthmenh thn 16 bit sampling daughtercard sthn GUS. Apanthste oxi "n" an exete GUS MAX. Energopoiwntas ayth thn epilogh, apenergopoieitai h yposthrijh gia GUS MAX.

GUS MAX support [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" mono an exete GUS MAX.

Microsoft Sound System support [Y/n/?]

Skefteite prosektika kai edw, prin apanthsete "y" se ayth thn erwthsh. Einai asfales na apanthsete "y" an exete thn gnhsia Windows Sound System card ths Microsoft h ths Aztech, SG 16 Pro (h NX16 Pro). Epishs mporeite na apanthsete "y" se periptwsh poy h karta sas den anaferetai poy8ena mexri twra se ayto to keimeno. Gia kartes poy yposthrizoyn eggenws VoxWare, symboyleyteite tis odhgies tis sygkekrimenhs kartas sto Readme.cards. Merikoi drivers parexoyn dikia toys yposthrijh MSS kai energopoiwntas aythn thn epilogh 8a dhmioyrghsei conflict.

Ensoniq Soundscape support [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" an exete karta hxoy basismenh sto chipset Ensoniq SoundScape. Tetoies kartes kataskeyazontai toylaxiston apo thn Ensoniq, Spea kai thn Reveal (h Reveal kataskeyazei epishs kai dikes ths kartes).

MediaTriX AudioTriX Pro support [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" an exete thn AudioTriX Pro.

Support for MAD16 and/or Mozart based cards?

Apanthste "y" an h karta sas dia8etei Mozart (OAK OTI-601) h MAD16 (OPTi 82C928 h 82C929) tsip hxoy. Ayta ta tsips einai pleon polu koina kai gi' ayto einai dynaton polles anwnymes kartes na exoyn kapoia apo ta parapanw tsips. Epipros8eta, to tsip MAD16 xrhsimopoieitai kai se merikes kartes poy kataskeyazontai apo gnwstous kataskeyastes h Turtle Beach (Tropez), h Reveal (merika montela ths), h Diamond (ta pio prosfata).

Support for Crystal CS4232 based (PnP) cards [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" an exete karta basismenh sto chipset Crystal CS4232.

Support for Turtle Beach Wave Front (Maui, Tropez) synthesizers [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" an exete opoiadhpote apo aytes tis kartes.

SoundBlaster Pro support [Y/n/?]

Energopoihste ayth thn epilogh an h karta sas einai h SoundBlaster Pro h h SoundBlaster 16. Energopoihste thn epishs gia opoiadhpote symbath me SoundBlaster Pro. An apanthsete "n" ejoikonomeite mnhmh, alla h asfalhs apanthsh edw einai "y".

SoundBlaster 16 support [Y/n/?]

Energopoihste thn epilogh an exete thn SoundBlaster 16 (symperilambanetai kai h AWE32).

Audio Excel DSP 16 initialization support [Y/n/?]

Energopoihste ayth thn epilogh an exete thn karta Audio Excel DSP16. Deite to arxeio Readme.aedsp16 gia perissoteres plhrofories.

To programma 8a sas rwthsei merikes erwthseis sxetika me thn yposthrijh kapoiwn akoma yphresiwn. Sas synistoume na apanthsete "y" se ka8e mia apo aytes tis erwthseis. Apanthste "n" mono an gnwrizete oti de 8a xreiasteite ayth thn epilogh.

/dev/dsp and /dev/audio support (usually required) [Y/n/?]

An apanthsete "n", apenergopoieite ta /dev/dsp kai /dev/audio, toys metatropeis A/D kai D/A. Apanthste "y".

MIDI interface support [Y/n/?]

An apanthsete "n", apenergopoieite ta devices /dev/midixx kai thn prosbash se opoiesdhpote 8ures MIDI xrhsimopoiwntas ta /dev/sequencer kai /dev/music. Ayth h epilogh ephreazei epishs opoiadhpote syskeyh MPU-401 kai/h symbath me General MIDI.

FM synthesizer (YM3812/OPL-3) support [Y/n/?]

Edw apanthste "y".

/dev/sequencer support [Y/n/?]

An apanthsete "n", apenergopoieite ta /dev/sequencer kai /dev/music

Do you want support for the mixer of SG NX Pro ?

Apanthste "y" an exete thn karta hxoy Sound Galaxy NX Pro kai 8elete yposthrijh gia tis ejtra leitoyrgies toy mikth (extended mixer functions).

Do you want support for the MV Jazz16 (ProSonic etc.) ?

Apanthste "y" an exete thn karta hxoy MV Jazz16.

Do you have a Logitech SoundMan Games [Y/n/?]

Apanthste "y" an exete thn karta hxoy Logitech SoundMan Games.

Meta tis parapanw erwthseis gia kartes hxoy, to programma zhta plhrofories gia th ru8mish ths sygkekrimenhs kartas. Synh8ws zhteitai h dieu8ynsh I/O, oi times twn IRQ kai DMA. Gia merikes kartes, to programma zhta merika arxeia poy 8a xrhsimopoih8oun kata thn arxikopoihsh ths kartas. Ayta xrhsimopoiountai apo kartes poy dia8etoyn DSP h mikroepejergasth poy prepei na arxikopoih8ei "fortwnontas" ena arxeio (microcode) sthn karta. Se kapoies periptwseis to arxeio ayto grafetai sto a .h apo to programma ry8misewn kai meta enswmatwnetai ston driver kata to compile. Kai edw, diabaste tis sygkekrimenes plhrofories gia thn karta sas sto arxeio Readme.cards.

Sto telos 8a erwth8eite:

The sound driver is now configured.
Save copy of this configuration to /etc/soundconf [Y/n/?]

Fysiologika 8a apantousate "y" etsi wste an mellontika xreiastei na kanete jana compile ton pyrhna, na exete thn epilogh na xrhsimopoihsete to idio arxeio ry8misewn gia ton driver hxoy.

Ean anaba8mizete ton palio sas driver hxoy, sigoyreyteite oti ta arxeia /usr/include/sys/soundcard.h kai /usr/include/sys/ultrasound.h einai symbolika links sta antistoixa arxeia sto /usr/include/linux, h apla oti periexoyn tis grammes #include <linux/soundcard.h> kai #include <linux/ultrasound.h>, antistoixa.

Eiste twra etoimoi na kanete compile kai na sthsete to neo pyrhna.

4.3 Dhmioyrgia twn Device files

Gia swsth leitoyrgia, prepei na dhmioyrgh8oun device file entries gia ta sound devices. Ayta kanonika dhmioyrgountai gia sas kata thn egkatastash toy systhmatos Linux. Enas suntomos elegxos mporei na ginei xrhsimopoiwntas thn entolh poy fainetai parakatw. An to apotelesma einai ayto poy fainetai parakatw (h hmeromhnia 8a diaferei), tote ta device files einai sxedon sigoyra entajei.

% ls -l /dev/sndstat
crw-rw-rw-   1 root     root      14,   6 Apr 25  1995 /dev/sndstat

Shmeiwste oti to na exete ta swsta device files den eggyatai tipota apo mono toy. O driver toy pyrhna prepei epishs na fortw8ei h na ginei compile prin na doylecoyn ta devices (perissotera gi' ayto parakatw).

Se spanies periptwseis, an pisteuete oti einai la8os ta device files, mporeite na ta janadhmioyrghsete xrhsimopoiwntas to mikro shell script poy brisketai sto telos toy arxeioy Readme.linux sto directory /usr/src/linux/drivers/sound, trexontas to sa xrhsths root. Enallaktika, oi perissoteres dianomes Linux exoyn ena script /dev/MAKEDEV to opoio mporei na xrhsimopoih8ei gi' ayto to skopo.

An xrhsimopoieite to PC speaker sound driver, diabaste thn tekmhriwsh poy erxetai mazi me to paketo wste na apofasisete an prepei na dhmioyrgh8oun tipota device files.

4.4 Epanekkinhsh toy Linux kai Elegxos ths Egkatastashs

8a prepei twra na eiste etoimoi na jekinhsete to neo pyrhna kai na elegjete toys drivers hxoy. Akoloy8hste th synh8ismenh diadikasia egkatastashs kai epanekkinhshs toy neoy pyrhna (krathste fysika kapoy ton palio pyrhna gia tyxon problhmata).

Kata thn ekkinhsh, elegjte gia mhnyma san to parakatw on powerup (an ta mynhmata emfanizontai polu grhgora kai den prolabainete na ta diabasete, mporeite na ta deite grafontas thn entolh dmesg):

Sound initialization started
<Sound Blaster 16 (4.13)> at 0x220 irq 5 dma 1,5
<Sound Blaster 16> at 0x330 irq 5 dma 0
<Yamaha OPL3 FM> at 0x388
Sound initialization complete

Ayto 8a prepei na tairiazei me ton tupo ths kartas hxoy sas kai ta jumper settings (an yparxoyn).

Shmeiwste oti ta parapanw mhnumata den emfanizontai otan xrhsimopoieite loadable sound driver module (ektos kai an to energopoihsete, p.x. xrhsimopoiwntas to "insmod sound trace_init=1).

Otan o driver hxoy ginetai link ston pyrhna, prepei na emfanistoun ta mhnumata "Sound initialization started" kai "Sound initialization complete". An den typwnontai, shmainei oti den yparxei driver hxoy ston pyrhna. Se ayth thn periptwsh, 8a prepei na elegjete oti xrhsimopoieite pragmati ton pyrhna poy kanate compile otan energopoihsate to driver hxoy.

An den typwnetai tipota metaju twn grammwn "Sound initialization started" kai "Sound initialization complete", shmainei oti den anixneu8hkan syskeyes hxoy. Polu pi8ana, ayto shmainei oti den exete energopoihsei to swsto driver, h karta den yposthrizetai, to I/O port is bad h oti exete karta PnP h opoia den ry8misthke swsta.

O driver mporei epishs na emfanisei merika mhnumata la8oys kai proeidopoihseis (warnings) kata thn ekkinhsh (boot). Prosejte gia tetoia mhnumata otan jekina to susthma gia prwth fora meta th ru8mish toy driver hxoy.

To epomeno bhma einai na elegjete to device file /dev/sndstat. An diabasete to status device file toy driver hxoy 8a sas dwsei epipleon plhrofories gia to an o driver ths kartas hxoy exei arxikopoih8ei swsta. Ena typiko apotelesma 8a fainetai opws to parakatw:

% cat /dev/sndstat
Sound Driver:3.5.4-960630 (Sat Jan 4 23:56:57 EST 1997 root,
Linux fizzbin 2.0.27 #48 Thu Dec 5 18:24:45 EST 1996 i586)
Kernel: Linux fizzbin 2.0.27 #48 Thu Dec 5 18:24:45 EST 1996 i586
Config options: 0

Installed drivers: 
Type 1: OPL-2/OPL-3 FM
Type 2: Sound Blaster
Type 7: SB MPU-401

Card config: 
Sound Blaster at 0x220 irq 5 drq 1,5
SB MPU-401 at 0x330 irq 5 drq 0
OPL-2/OPL-3 FM at 0x388 drq 0

Audio devices:
0: Sound Blaster 16 (4.13)

Synth devices:
0: Yamaha OPL-3

Midi devices:
0: Sound Blaster 16

Timers:
0: System clock

Mixers:
0: Sound Blaster

H parapanw entolh mporei na anaferei merika mhnumata la8oys. To "No such file or directory" deixnei oti prepei na dhmioyrghsete ta device files (deite to tmhma 4.3). To "No such device" shmainei oti o driver hxoy den einai fortwmenos h den exei ginei link ston pyrhna. Epistrecte sto tmhma 4.2 gia na to dior8wsete.

An oi grammes sto "Card config:" gia to /dev/sndstat briskontai entos paren8eshs (opws: "(SoundBlaster at 0x220 irq 5 drq 1,5)"), shmainei pws h syskeyh ayth parolo poy ry8misthke, den entopisthke apo to susthma.

Twra 8a prepei na eisaste etoimoi na paijete ena aplo arxeio hxoy. Breite ena tetoio arxeio kai steilte to sthn karta, san ena basiko test ths dynatothtas paragwghs hxoy, p.x.:

% cat endoftheworld >/dev/dsp
% cat crash.au >/dev/audio

(Sigoyreyteite pws den paraleicate to ">" stis parapanw entoles).

Shmeiwste pws genika, h xrhsh toy cat den einai o katallhlos tropos na paizete arxeia hxoy, alla apla ena grhgoro test. 8a xreiastei na breite ena pragmatiko programma hxoy (8a perigrafoun argotera) poy 8a kanei kaluterh doyleia.

Ayth h entolh 8a doylecei mono an yparxei toylaxiston mia syskeyh sto tmhma me ta audio devices toy /dev/sndstat. An to tmhma twn audio devices einai adeio, prepei na elegjete giati h syskeyh den entopisthke.

An oi parapanw entoles epistrefoyn "I/O error", 8a prepei na koitajete sto telos twn mhnymatwn toy pyrhna poy emfanizontai me thn entolh "dmesg". Einai polu pi8ano ena mhnyma la8oys na emfanizetai ekei. Polu syxna to mhnyma einai "Sound: DMA (output) timed out - IRQ/DRQ config error;". To parapanw mhnyma shmainei oti o driver den elabe to anamenomeno interrupt apo thn karta hxoy. Stis perissoteres periptwseis ayto shmainei oti to IRQ h to kanali DMA poy ry8misthke ston driver de doyleuei. O kaluteros tropos na to kanete na doylecei einai na dokimaste ola ta pi8ana DMAs kai IRQs poy yposthrizontai apo th syskeyh.

óllos pi8anos logos einai oti h syskeyh den einai symbath me th syskeyh gia thn opoia ry8misthke o driver. Ayth einai sxedon panta h periptwsh otan mia ypoti8emenh "symbath me SoundBlaster (Pro/16)" karta hxoy de doyleuei me to driver gia SoundBlaster. Se ayth thn periptwsh, dokimaste na breite th syskeyh me thn opoia h karta hxoy sas einai symbath (stelnontas, gia paradeigma, mhnyma sto newsgroup comp.os.linux.hardware).

Merika deigmata arxeiwn hxoy 8a breite sto url="ftp://tsx-11.mit.edu/pub/linux/packages/sound/snd-data-0.1.tar.Z">

Twra mporeite na elegjete thn hxografhsh hxoy. An exete dynatothta gia eisodo hxoy (sound input), mporeite na kanete ena grhgoro test xrhsimopoiwntas tis entoles:

# hxografei 4 deyt/pta hxoy apo to mikrofwno
EDT% dd bs=8k count=4 </dev/audio >sample.au
4+0 records in
4+0 records out
# play back sound
% cat sample.au >/dev/audio

Fysika gia na doylecei kati tetoio, xreiazeste ena mikrofwno syndedemeno sthn karta hxoy sas kai 8a prepei na milhsete s' ayto. Mporei na xreiasteite ena programma mixer gia na 8esete to mikrofwno ws thn phgh eisodoy kai na ry8misete thn entash ths hxografhshs.

An ta test ayta oloklhrw8oun epityxws, mporeite na eisaste hsyxoi, se logika plaisia bebaia, pws ta D/A kai A/D hardware kai software doyleuoyn. An antimetwpisete problhmata, diabaste to epomeno tmhma aytou toy keimenoy.

4.5 Troubleshooting

An akoma antimetwpizete problhmata parolo poy akoloy8hsate tis odhgies toy HOWTO, edw yparxoyn merika pragmata poy mporeite na elegjete. Oi elegxoi anagrafontai me aujoysa seira polyplokothtas. An enas elegxos apotuxei, luste to problhma prin proxwrhsete sto epomeno bhma.

Bhma 1: Bebaiw8eite pws pragmatika trexete ton pyrhna poy kanate compile.

Mporeite na elegjete to date stamp toy pyrhna gia na deite oti xrhsimopoieite ayton poy kanate compile me yposthrijh hxoy. Ayto mporeite na to kanete me thn entolh uname:

% uname -a
Linux fizzbin 2.0.0 #1 Tue Jun 4 16:57:55 EDT 1996 i386

h koitwntas to arxeio /proc/version:

% cat /proc/version
Linux version 2.0.0 (root@fizzbin) (gcc version 2.7.0) #1 Tue Jun 4 16:57:55 EDT 1996

An to date stamp den tairiazei me thn hmeromhnia poy kanate compile ton pyrhna, tote trexete enan palio pyrhna. Kanate reboot; An xrhsimopoieite LILO to janaegkatasthsate (typika trexontas /etc/lilo/install); An jekinhsete apo disketa, dhmioyrghsate nea boot disketa kai an nai, thn xrhsimopoihsate kata thn ekkinhsh;

Bhma 2: Bebaiw8eite pws oi drivers hxoy toy pyrhna symperilhf8hsan sto compile.

O aplousteros tropos gia ayto, einai na elegjete thn ejodo toy "dev/sndstat" opws perigrafhke nwritera. An h ejodos den einai h anamenomenh tote kati phge la8os me tis ry8miseis toy pyrhna h to build toy. Arxiste jana thn diadikasia egkatastashs, jekinwntas apo to configuration kai to xtisimo toy pyrhna.

Bhma 3: Anagnwrise o pyrhnas thn karta hxoy kata thn ekkinhsh;

Bebaiw8eite pws h karta hxoy entopisthke apo ton pyrhna kata thn ekkinhsh. 8a prepei na eidate kapoio mhnyma kata thn ekkinhsh. An ta mhnumata kanane scroll ejw apo thn o8onh sas, mporeite na ta janadeite me thn entolh dmesg:

% dmesg

h

% tail /var/adm/messages

An h karta hxoy sas den bre8hke tote kati paei la8os. Bebaiw8eite pws exei alh8ina egkatasta8ei. An h karta hxoy doyleuei se DOS tote mporeite na eisaste sxetika sigoyroi pws to hardware doyleuei, kai ara prokeitai gia problhma stis ry8miseis toy pyrhna. H dhlwsate thn karta sas ws la8os tupo, h me la8os parametroys, h h karta hxoy sas den einai symbath me kanenan driver kartas hxoy toy pyrhna toy Linux.

Mia pi8anothta einai oti h karta hxoy sas einai mia apo tis "symbatou" tupoy poy xreiazetai arxikopoihsh apo to DOS driver. Dokimaste na ekkinhsete DOS kai na fortwsete to driver poy parexetai apo ton pwlhth ths karta hxoy. Meta epanekkinhste (soft boot) se Linux patwntas Control-Alt-Delete. Sigoyreyteite oti h dieu8ynsh I/O ths kartas hxoy, oi ry8miseis DMA kai IRQ sto Linux einai idies opws kai sto DOS. Diabaste to arxeio Readme.cards apo th dianomh toy phgaioy kwdika toy driver ths kartas hxoy gia tyxon ypodeijeis gia th ru8mish kartas hxoy aytou toy tupoy.

An h karta hxoy sas de symperilambanetai se ayto to keimeno, einai pi8ano oti oi Linux drivers den thn yposthrizoyn. Mporeite na to elegjete me kapoies apo tis parapompes poy briskontai gia boh8eia sto telos toy keimenoy.

Bhma 4: Mporeite na diabasete dedomena apo to dsp device ;

Prospa8hste na diabasete apo th syskeyh /dev/audio xrhsimopoiwntas thn entolh dd poy paroysiasthke nwritera se ayto to keimeno. H entolh prepei na trexei xwris la8h.

An de doyleuei, tote to pi8anotero einai pws to problhma einai IRQ h DMA conflict h kapoio eidos asymbatothtas se epipedo hardware (h syskeyh den yposthrizetai apo to Linux h o driver exei ry8mistei gia la8os syskeyh).

Mia mikrh pi8anothta einai h uparjh elattwmatikou hardware. Dokimaste na elegjete thn karta hxoy sto DOS, an einai dynato, wste na ejaleicete ayth thn pi8anothta.

Otan ola exoyn apotuxei

.

An ejakoloy8eite na exete problhmata, deite parakatw merikes telikes protaseis gia to ti mporeite na dokimasete:

Paroysiazw edw ena deigma toy tupoy twn efarmogwn poy pi8ana 8a 8elete an exete egkatasthsei karta hxoy se Linux. Mporeite na elegjete to Linux Software Map, ta Internet archive sites, kai/h ta arxeia sto Linux CD-ROM poy exete gia pio prosfates plhrofories .

Polu pi8ana 8a 8elete na apokthsete toylaxiston tis parakatw efarmoges :

Yparxoyn text-based alla kai GUI-based ekdoseis gia ta perissotera apo ayta ta ergaleia. Yparxoyn epishs merikes perissotero esoteric efarmoges (p.x. anagnwrish kai sun8esh fwnhs) poy isws 8elete na dokimasete.


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