Next Previous Contents

7. Merikes pagides

7.1 make clean

An o pyrhnas sas kanei trela pragmata meta apo mia synh8ismenh anaba8mish, pi8anotata exete jexasei to make clean prin kanete compile ton neo pyrhna. Ta symptwmata mporei na einai opoiadhpote, apo kremasma toy H/Y kai parajenh symperifora toy I/O, mexri pesmenh apodosh. Epishs, 8ymh8eite na kanete kai make dep.

7.2 Terastioi h argoi pyrhnes

An o pyrhnas sas aporrofa pollh mnhmh, einai polu megalos, kai/h kanei aiwnes gia compile akomh kai sto neo sas Quadbazillium-III/4400, pi8anotata ry8mizete tonoys apo axrhsta pragmata (drivers syskeywn, filesystems, klp). An den xrhsimopoieite kati, mhn to ry8mizete, epeidh katalambanei poroys toy H/Y. To profanestero sumptwma parafoyskwmatos toy pyrhna einai h yperbolikh antallagh dedomenwn (swapping) apo - pros mnhmh kai disko. An o diskos sas kanei polu 8orybo, kai den einai apo keinoys toys palious Fujitsu Eagles, poy kata to kleisimo kanoyn san aeriw8oumeno poy prosgeiwnetai, cajte to sthsimo toy pyrhna sas.

Mporeite na breite posh mnhmh xrhsimopoiei o pyrhnas, pairnontas to oliko poso mnhmhs toy H/Y sas, kai afairwntas to poso ths "total mem" (olikhs mnhmhs) sto arxeio /proc/meminfo, h to poso poy dinei h entolh free.

7.3 Den doyleuei h parallhlh 8ura, h o ektypwths moy

Oi epiloges ru8mishs gia ta PCs einai : Prwta, sthn kathgoria "General Setup" (genikes ry8miseis), dialejte "Parallel port support" (yposthrijh parallhlhs 8uras) kai "PC-style hardware" (hardware tupoy PC). Meta, stis "Character devices" (syskeyes xarakthrwn) dialejte "Parallel printer support" (yposthrijh parallhloy ektypwth).

Meta, yparxoyn kai oi onomasies. To Linux 2.2 onomazei ton ektypwth diaforetika ap' o,ti oi prohgoumenes ekdoseis. To symperasma einai oti an eixate lp1 me ton palio pyrhna sas, twra pi8anotata exete lp0 me toys kainourgioys. Gia na breite to onoma toy ektypwth, dwste thn entolh dmesg, h cajte ta arxeia katagrafhs (logs) sto dir /var/log.

7.4 Den ginetai compile ston pyrhna

An den ginetai compile, tote pi8anotata apetyxe h pros8hkh enos patch, h kata kapoio tropo den einai swstos o source kwdikas. Epishs, mporei na einai palia h oxi swsth h ekdosh ths gcc poy exete (px ta arxeia include). Bebaiw8eite oti oi symbolikoi desmoi (symbolic links) poy perigrafei o Linus sto README, einai sthmenoi swsta. Genika, an den mporoume na kanoyme compile enan stantar pyrhna, tote kati den paei ka8oloy kala me to Linux, kai einai anagkaia h epanegkatastash merikwn ergaleiwn.

Se merikes periptwseis, h gcc krasarei ej aitias problhmatwn sto hardware. To mhnyma la8oys einai kati san "xxx exited with signal 15" ( = to xxx epace na leitoyrgei me mhnyma 15), kai genika ayta ta mhnumata exoyne mysthriwdh emfanish. Pi8anotata den 8a milage gia kati tetoio, alla einai kati poy moy synebh kapote - eixa xalasmenh mnhmh cache, kai o compiler kremouse se tyxaies stigmes. An exete problhmata, prwta prospa8hste na epanegkatasthsete thn gcc. Prepei na ginete kaxupoptoi monaxa an kanete aproblhmatista compile ston pyrhna sas me off thn ejwterikh cache, me periorismenh posothta RAM, klp.

Enoxlei toys xrhstes, otan toys les oti to hardware toys einai problhmatiko, alla den bgazw ta pragmata ayta ap' to myalo moy. Yparxei enas sxetikos katalogos me syxnes erwthseis (FAQs), poy brisketai sto http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/.

7.5 H nea ekdosh toy pyrhna den bootarei

Den trejate to LILO, h den to ry8misate swsta. Ena pragma poy me "dielyse" kapote, htan ena problhma sto arxeio ry8misewn, opoy egrafe boot = /dev/hda1, anti boot = /dev/hda. (Ayto mporei na einai polu enoxlhtiko sthn arxh, alla an exete ena arxeio ry8misewn poy doyleuei, den xreiazetai na to allajete.)

7.6 3exasate na trejete to LILO, h o H/Y den bootarei ka8oloy

Oups! To kalutero pragma poy mporeite na kanete edw einai boot apo disketa h CDROM, kai na etoimasete mia akomh disketa ekkinhshs (opws px 8a thn eftiaxne h entolh make zdisk). Prepei na gnwrizete poy na breite to root filesystem sas (/), kai ti tupos einai (dhl. second extended, minix). Sto parakatw paradeigma, prepei epishs na gnwrizete epanw se poio filesystem brisketai to dentro toy source kwdika sas (/usr/src/linux), ton tupo toy, kai pou to kanoyme mount synh8ws.

Sto akoloy8o paradeigma, to / einai to /dev/hda1, kai to filesystem poy krataei to /usr/src/linux brisketai sto /dev/hda3, poy synh8ws to kanoyme mount sto /usr. Kai ta duo einai filesystems tupoy second extended. To image toy energou pyrhna sto /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot onomazetai bzImage.

H idea einai oti, an yparxei ena energo bzImage, pi8anon na mporoume na to baloyme sth nea disketa. Mia allh enallaktikh lush, poy isws na doyleuei kalutera, isws kai oxi (ejartatai me poia me8odo kanate mpaxalo ton H/Y sas), 8a th syzhthsoyme meta to paradeigma.

Prwta, kante boot apo syndyasmo boot/root disketwn (h disketa diaswshs - rescue disk), kai kante mount to filesystem poy periexei to image toy energou pyrhna :

    mkdir /mnt
    mount -t ext2 /dev/hda3 /mnt

An h mkdir sas pei oti to dir ayto yparxei hdh, apla agnohste thn. Twra, pate me cd sto dir opoy briskotane to image toy energou pyrhna. Shmeiwste pws

/mnt + /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot - /usr = /mnt/src/linux/arch/i386/boot

Balte mia formarismenh disketa sto drive "A:" (oxi th disketa boot h th root!), rijte to image epanw ths, kai ry8miste to gia to root filesystem sas :

    cd /mnt/src/linux/arch/i386/boot
    dd if=bzImage of=/dev/fd0
    rdev /dev/fd0 /dev/hda1

Meta, gyriste me cd sto / kai kante unmount to kanoniko filesystem /usr :

    cd /
    umount /mnt

Twra, logika prepei na mporeite na epanekkinhsete ton H/Y sas kanonika ap' ayth th disketa. Mhn jexasete na trejete to lilo (h na kanete swsta o,ti kanate prin la8os) meta thn epanekkinhsh!

Opws proanaferame, yparxei kai mia allh synh8ismenh enallaktikh lush. An symbei na exete ena antigrafo toy energou pyrhna sto / (px to /vmlinuz), mporeite na to xrhsimopoihsete gia mia disketa ekkinhshs. Ypo8etontas ola ta parapanw ws swsta, kai oti to image toy pyrhna onomazetai /vmlinuz, allajte ta ejhs sto parapanw paradeigma : Allajte to /dev/hda3 se /dev/hda1 (sto filesystem /), to /mnt/src/linux se /mnt, kai to if=bzImage se if=vmlinuz. (Agnohste th shmeiwsh poy leei pws na ftiajete to /mnt/src/linux.)

H xrhsh toy LILO me megaloys diskoys (panw apo 1024 kylindrwn) mporei na projenhsei problhmata. Diabaste to LILO mini-HOWTO, h opoiodhpote sxetiko keimeno.

7.7 Leei "warning: bdflush not running"

(Dhl. "proeidopoihsh : den trexei to bdflush".) Ayto mporei na einai sobaro problhma. Me arxh kapoia ekdosh toy pyrhna metagenesterh ths 1.0 (gurw stis 20 Aprilioy 1994), anaba8mis8hke kai antikatasta8hke to programma update (to opoio adeiazei se periodikh bash ta boh8htika arxeia toy filesystem). Parte ton source kwdika toy bdflush (mporeite na ton breite ekei, opoy yparxei kai o source kwdikas toy pyrhna), kai egkatasthste ton. (Oso kanete thn egkatastash, pi8anotata na 8elete na trexei o palios pyrhnas sas.) To programma ayto egka8istatai ws update, kai meta thn epanekkinhsh o neos pyrhnas den 8a parapone8ei jana.

7.8 Den mporw na balw to IDE/ATAPI CD-ROM na doylecei

Arketa paradojws, arketoi xrhstes den mporoun na baloyne tis monades ATAPI na doylecoyn, epeidh einai polla ta pragmata poy pi8anon na mhn pane kala.

Ean to CD-ROM sas einai h monh syskeyh epanw s' ena kalwdio IDE, prepei na to kanete (me toys jumpers - braxykyklwthres - sto sasi toy) "master" h "single". Ayto einai to pleon synh8ismeno la8os - alla entelws ypo8etika.

Gia paradeigma, h etairia Creative Labs exei balei diasyndeseis IDE epanw stis kartes hxoy poy paragei. Wstoso, ayto odhgei sto endiaferon problhma oti, enw merikoi xrhstes exoyne mono mia diasundesh IDE, arketoi exoyne duo ap aytes epanw sth motherboard toys (synh8ws sthn IRQ15), ara h diasundesh stis kartes SoundBlaster ginetai h trith IDE (polles fores sthn IRQ11).

Ayto projenei problhmata sto Linux, epeidh oi ekdoseis 1.2.x den yposthrizoyn trith diasundesh IDE. (H sxetikh yposthrijh jekinaei kapoy stis ekdoseis 1.3.x , alla 8ymh8eite oti aytes einai ekdoseis anaptyjhs, kai den kanoyn aytomath anixneysh perifereiakwn.) (S.t.m. : To Linux exei beltiw8ei polu apo tote poy grafthke to paron HowTo, alla sthn prajh ejakoloy8ei na paramenei polu spania h anagkh gia 3h IDE.) Gia na jeperasete ayton ton skopelo, exete kapoies epiloges :

An hdh exete deuterh IDE, pi8anotata h den thn xrhsimopoieite, h den exei duo monades diskoy - cdrom epanw ths. Parte th monada ATAPI apo thn karta hxoy, kai balte thn epanw sth deuterh IDE. Meta, apenergopoieiste thn IDE ths kartas hxoy (kai ejoikonomhste etsi mia IRQ).

An den exete deuterh IDE, kalwdiwste me toys jumpers thn IDE ths kartas hxoy (oxi to meros poy exei na kanei me tis leitoyrgies hxoy!) sthn IRQ15, wste na ginei deuterh IDE. Ayto to sxhma prepei na doyleuei kanonika.

7.9 Leei parajena pragmata gia katarghmenes aithseis routing

Breite tis nees ekdoseis toy programmatos route, ka8ws kai opoioy alloy programmatos xeirizetai to routing. Exei allajei to /usr/include/linux/route.h (to opoio einai ena arxeio sto /usr/src/linux).

7.10 To firewalling den doyleuei sthn ekdosh 1.2.0

Anaba8misteite toylaxiston sthn ekdosh 1.2.1 .

7.11 "Not a compressed kernel Image file"

(Dhl. "Den prokeitai gia sympiesmeno image toy pyrhna".) Mhn xrhsimopoihsete gia bootarisma to arxeio vmlinux poy dhmioyrgh8hke sto /usr/src/linux. To swsto einai to [..]/arch/i386/boot/bzImage.

7.12 Problhmata me to termatiko konsolas (console terminal) meta thn anaba8mish se 1.3.x

Sth grammh gia thn console termcap toy arxeioy /etc/termcap, allajte th lejh dumb se linux. Isws xreiastei na dwsete kai mia sxetikh grammh terminfo.

7.13 Den mporw na kanw compile, afou anaba8misa ton pyrhna

O source kwdikas toy pyrhna toy Linux perilambanei kamposa arxeia include (ayta poy exoyn katalhjh .h) sto dir /usr/include, sta opoia kai anaferontai ta ypoloipa. H typikh klhsh twn arxeiwn aytwn ginetai ws ejhs (opoy xyzzy.h einai opoiodhpote arxeio include mesa sto /usr/include/linux) :

    #include <linux/xyzzy.h>

Kanonika, yparxei sto /usr/include to link linux pros to directory include/linux toy source kwdika toy pyrhna sas (synh8ws /usr/src/linux/include/linux). An ayto to link den brisketai ekei, h deixnei pros la8os meros, ta perissotera arxeia den mporoun na ginoyn compile. An apofasisate oti o source kwdikas toy pyrhna trwei xwro ston disko, kai ton sbhsate, ayto pi8anotata 8' apotelesei problhma. Mia akomh aitia problhmatwn, einai oi adeies xrhshs twn arxeiwn. Ean to dir root exei ej orismou umask, poy den epitrepei se alloys xrhstes na doune ta periexomena toy, kai anoijate ton source kwdika toy pyrhna xwris thn parametro p (preserve filemodes - diathrhsh toy tropoy leitoyrgias twn arxeiwn), aytoi oi sygkekrimenoi xrhstes den 8a mporesoyn na xrhsimopoihsoyn meta ton compiler ths glwssas C. An kai mporeite na dwsete thn entolh chmod gia na dior8wsete ayth thn katastash, einai mallon eykolotero na jananoijete ta arxeia include. Ayto ginetai me ton idio tropo poy anoijate olon ton source kwdika toy pyrhna sthn arxh, mono poy exei mia parametro parapanw :

    blah# tar zxvpf linux.x.y.z.tar.gz linux/include

Shmeiwsh : H "make config" 8a janaftiajei to link pros to /usr/src/linux, ean ayto den yparxei.

7.14 Ayjanontas ta oria

Oi akoloy8es, ws paradeigma entoles, mporei na fanoun xrhsimes s' osoys rwtane pws ayjanontai kapoia oria, poy bazei o pyrhnas apo monos toy :

echo 4096 > /proc/sys/kernel/file-max
echo 12288 > /proc/sys/kernel/inode-max
echo 300 400 500 > /proc/sys/vm/freepages


Next Previous Contents